Targeting Your Audience

Use targeting to address specific members of your messaging Audience Your message's selected recipients. . For mobile wallet passes, you target the passes instead of the passholders.

  • Send an announcement about a new app version and encourage users to upgrade.
  • Send messages to a list of users created from your CRM data.
  • Send a reengagement message based on users' likelihood to stop using your app.
  • Apply template design changes to passes that have already been distributed.

Audience Selection

You can specify your message audience by a unique identifier, such as a device ID or email address, or by an identifier that may belong to or include multiple users, such as a tag or audience list.

When using the Message or A/B Test composers (/push and /experiments endpoints) you can target audiences using:

You can also target using segments, which are constructed using combinations of tags, audience lists, location history, and location (API only).

In-App Automation Conditions

When using the In-App Automation composer your targeting options are listed as as predefined conditions for displaying the message:

  • App Version
  • Location Opt-in Status
  • New Users
  • Platforms
  • Push Opt-in Status
  • Tags
  • Locale
  • Predicted to Churn

See: Target Specific Users: In-App Automation: Conditions.

Targeting Passes

When you target passes, you select an audience of passes, not passholders. Passes are targeted via tags only.

Mobile wallet passes are distributed as URLs. After you generate the URLs, you can then distribute the passes via the method of your choosing. If you choose to include the URL with a message via Airship, you will select your audience as described for messaging.

The only other time you need to consider the pass audience is when you want to apply template design changes to Apple Wallet passes that have already been distributed. This is handled by the Publish feature.

Client-side vs Server-side

As explained in Intro to Data, the engagement data that Airship provides is specific to mobile apps and websites that have installed our SDK. This is the source of client-side data used for targeting.

You can also group users and add tags yourself — this is considered server-side. CRM and POS systems are common sources. For targeting, you can create:

  • Tags and tag groups
  • Named users
  • Audience lists

Assign tags to channels and named users, or group channels into named users. See: Tags and Named Users: How to. Add tags to a pass via the API. See: Wallet API: Tags.

You can target an audience using Uploaded and Lifecycle audience lists, and even incorporate audience lists into segments. See: Audience Lists.


Server-side data may not be available for immediate use. Channel registration is asynchronous, and may take some time to populate server-side. You may need to wait up to an hour to target newly-created channels.

Audience Retargeting

Audience retargeting makes it easy to send follow-up messages to the audience of a parent message.

When you create a push notification for app and web channels, you can enable the Generate retargeting segments setting to make the audience of the current message eligible for follow-up push notifications. When you enable this setting, Airship generates segments for:

  • The entire message audience.
  • Audience members who engaged with the message.
  • Audience members who did not engage with the message.

You can then send a follow-up push notification to app and web channels based on any of your retargeting segments. The original message is considered the parent, and the follow-up message is the child. The selected channels for the follow-up message must be the same as the parent, and the message type must be push notification only — message types cannot be combined.

Your follow-up message is a copy of the parent message, with the following differences in the Audience step:

  • Target Specific Users is selected and set to your selected retargeting segment. You can add additional criteria to narrow down the retargeted audience.
  • If the parent message included multiple app platforms, you can disable app platforms but you cannot select additional ones.

You can generate retargeting segments for up to 5 parent messages per day. There's no limit to the number of follow-up messages you can send from those parents.


When you send or schedule a push notification to a retargeting segment, Airship does not calculate your audience until send time. Make sure you leave enough time for users to see and interact with the parent message before you send a follow-up message.


The message report for a parent message shows that Retargeting is enabled and complete audience criteria. The child message report specifies the segment retargeted from the parent message, and links to its parent's message. You can follow the link from the child to the parent to see your original audience criteria.

Targeting Methods

In the dashboard, Target Specific Users is an option in the Audience step of the Message, A/B Test, and In-App Automation composers:

In the API, target specific users via the audience object. See: API: Audience Selection.

Retargeting segments are accessed from a parent message's message report. Follow the steps in the audience retargeting tutorial.

Publishing Passes

Use the Publish feature to apply template design changes to a segment of Apple Wallet passes that have already been distributed. When choosing which passes to update, select the radio button for A specific segment, then select your previously created segment. See: Publish Tutorial.

While Publish is not supported for Google Pay, Google Pay passes will automatically update with any changes made to class fields. How it works:

  • If a class value class.* is changed, all passes will be changed.
  • On Update Pass, only that pass is updated. Class values are not sent with the update object when updating passes, so there is no effect on other passes.

Any field preceded by class constitutes a class field. For a full list of class fields, please visit the Google Pay documentation.

You can also update a segment of passes via the /segments endpoint. See: Wallet API: Update Segment.