Targeting Your Audience

Use targeting to address specific members of your messaging Audience Your message's selected recipients. . For mobile wallet passes, you target the passes instead of the passholders.

  • Send an announcement about a new app version and encourage users to upgrade.
  • Send messages to a list of users created from your CRM data.
  • Send a reengagement message based on users' likelihood to stop using your app.
  • Apply template design changes to passes that have already been distributed.

Audience Selection

You can specify your message audience by a unique identifier, such as a device ID or email address, or by an identifier that may belong to or include multiple users, such as a tag or audience list.

When using the Message or A/B Test workflows (/push and /experiments endpoints) you can target audiences using:

You can also target using segments, which are constructed using combinations of tags, audience lists, location history, and location (API only).

In-App Automation Conditions

When using the In-App Automation workflow your targeting options are listed as as predefined conditions for displaying the message:

  • App Version
  • Location Opt-in Status
  • New Users
  • Platforms
  • Push Opt-in Status
  • Tags
  • Locale
  • Predicted to Churn

See: Target Specific Users: In-App Automation: Conditions.

Targeting Passes

When you target passes, you select an audience of passes, not passholders. Passes are targeted via tags only.

Mobile wallet passes are distributed as URLs. After you generate the URLs, you can then distribute the passes via the method of your choosing. If you choose to include the URL with a message via Airship, you will select your audience as described for messaging.

The only other time you need to consider the pass audience is when you want to apply template design changes to Apple Wallet passes that have already been distributed. This is handled by the Publish feature.

Client-side vs Server-side

As explained in Intro to Data, the engagement data that Airship provides is specific to mobile apps and websites that have installed our SDK. This is the source of client-side data used for targeting.

You can also group users and add tags yourself — this is considered server-side. CRM and POS systems are common sources. For targeting, you can create:

  • Tags and tag groups
  • Named users
  • Audience lists

Assign tags to channels and named users, or group channels into named users. See: Tags and Named Users: How to. Add tags to a pass via the API. See: Wallet API: Tags.

You can target an audience using Uploaded and Lifecycle audience lists, and even incorporate audience lists into segments. See: Audience Lists.


Server-side data may not be available for immediate use. Channel registration is asynchronous, and may take some time to populate server-side. You may need to wait up to an hour to target newly-created channels.

Targeting Methods

In the dashboard, Target Specific Users is an option in the Audience step of the Message, A/B Test, and In-App Automation workflows:

In the API, target specific users via the audience object. See: API: Audience Selection.

Publishing Passes

Use the Publish feature to apply template design changes to a segment of Apple Wallet passes that have already been distributed. When choosing which passes to update, select the radio button for A specific segment, then select your previously created segment. See: Publish Tutorial.

While Publish is not supported for Google Pay, Google Pay passes will automatically update with any changes made to class fields. See details in Publish Tutorial: Google Pay.

You can also update a segment of passes via the /segments endpoint. See: Wallet API: Update Segment.