Segments are reusable audience selection criteria. You can create segments rather than recreating your audience selections every time you send a message or update a pass, and can target an audience segment in any message or pass template in your project.

Segmentation Data

Segments are constructed using combinations of tags, audience lists, location, and location history. For passes, segments are based on tags only.


Location is not supported for web push notifications.

Tag Segments

TagsMetadata that can be associated with a channel or a named user for targeting. Tags are generally descriptive terms indicating user preferences or other categorizations, e.g., wine_enthusiast or weather_alerts_los_angeles. Tags are case-sensitive. are selected — not created — when you create a segment. Tags are created via the app or website by sending a notification that adds that tag to users’ devices, and at least one user must have interacted with that notification. Refer to Segments Builder: Tag Options for tag names, and search and select details per tag type.

For passes, you will select tags that you have already created and attached to passes. See: Wallet API: Tags.

List Segments

Include either Lifecyle Lists or Uploaded Lists in your segment. See: Audience Lists.

Location Segments

If your app uses Airship’s historical location service, you may include location criteria for users who have or have not recently been in a location within a defined time period.

Three months’ location history is the default data retention package, with options to retain six or twelve months’ location history. See the Data Retention Schedule.

When creating a location-based segment condition, you can also include location events that occurred “within the last” number of hours, days, weeks, or months. See: Time Bucketing: “Within the Last X”

Actual location, rather than location history, may be specified when creating segments via the API. See the API documentation: Segment Locations.

Retargeting Segments

Audience retargeting is a method for sending follow-up messages to the audience of a parent message.

When you create a push notification for app and web channels, you can enable the Generate retargeting segments setting to make the audience of the current message eligible for follow-up push notifications. When you enable this setting, Airship generates segments for:

  • The entire message audience.
  • Audience members who engaged with the message.
  • Audience members who did not engage with the message.

You can then send a follow-up push notification to app and web channels based on any of your retargeting segments. The original message is considered the parent, and the follow-up message is the child. The selected channels for the follow-up message must be the same as the parent, and the message type must be push notification only — message types cannot be combined.

To make the audience of a message eligible for retargeting, enable Generate retargeting segments in the Audience step of the Message composer. This option is only available when your channels are limited to app platforms and Web.

For additional information, see: Audience Retargeting.

Creating Segments

Create all non-retargeting segments through the API or the dashboard.



Sending to Segments

Retargeting segments are accessed from a parent message’s message report. Follow the steps in the audience retargeting tutorial.

For any segment you create, you can use it as a recipient group when selecting your messaging audience. See: Target Specific Users.

To send to a segment via the API, see the Audience Selection API documentation.

For mobile wallet projects, use the Publish feature to updates a segment’s passes. When choosing which passes to update, select the radio button for A specific segment, then select your previously created segment. See: Publish Tutorial.

Estimated Audience

Before sending to a segment, you may want to know how many recipients are included in that segment. The Estimated Audience is displayed in the lower right corner in the Segments Builder when you are creating, editing, or viewing a segment. See: Segments Builder: Estimated Audience

Estimates are based on a sampling of your audience that meets the segment criteria. A 95% confidence interval is calculated from the sample, and the rounded midpoint of each interval is displayed.


Due to a number of potential unknowns, including device on/off states, connectivity, and the disparities and limitations of iOS and Android, it is impossible to measure and maintain with 100% certainty the number of recipients. Given these constraints, our sampling model provides the most up-to-date estimate possible.

Editing or Deleting Segments

When editing a messaging segment, be mindful of any scheduled pushes that target that segment. If you have a scheduled push that targets a segment, and you edit that segment some time after the push’s creation, the push audience will not be updated to match the new segment. The scheduled push will be sent to the version of the segment that existed when the push was created, rather than the updated version.

If you want the scheduled push to target the updated segment, you must manually update the push.

Follow the steps in the tutorials: